ProjectDisaster: Disasters, Terrorism, Preparedness, Emerging Infections, Response, Mitigation

Search ProjectDisaster:

Choose a Topic:

February 26th, 2012 posted by Paul Rega, MD, FACEP February 26, 2012 @ 8:08 am

February 26, 1993: First WTC attack

A bomb explodes in the garage of New York’s World Trade Center,  Six people are killed and more than 1,000 others are injured.



Email This Post Email This Post

Comments Off

February 26th, 2012 posted by Paul Rega, MD, FACEP @ 1:29 am

CDC Synopsis : Week 7 of Flu season

Uncategorized

http://www.cdc.gov/flu/weekly/

CDC Synopsis:

During week 7 (February 12-18, 2012), influenza activity in the United States increased slightly, but remained relatively low.

 

 


Email This Post Email This Post

Comments Off

February 26th, 2012 posted by Paul Rega, MD, FACEP @ 1:29 am

European Flu Map: Week 7

Uncategorized



Email This Post Email This Post

Comments Off

February 26th, 2012 posted by Paul Rega, MD, FACEP @ 1:27 am

CDC: How flu vaccine choices are made…….

Uncategorized

http://www.cdc.gov/flu/about/qa/vaccine-selection.htm

Vaccine Selection for the 2011-2012 and 2012-2013 Influenza Seasons

Questions & Answers

 
 

Each year, experts from FDA, WHO, U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and other institutions study virus samples collected from around the world to identify the influenza viruses that are the most likely to cause illness during the upcoming flu season so that people can be protected against them through vaccination.

On February 23, 2012 the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended that the Northern Hemisphere’s 2012-2013 seasonal influenza vaccine contain the following three vaccine viruses:

  • an A/California/7/2009 (H1N1)pdm09-like virus;
  • an A/Victoria/361/2011 (H3N2)-like virus;
  • a B/Wisconsin/1/2010-like virus (from the B/Yamagata lineage of viruses).

While the H1N1 virus is the same, the H3N2 and B vaccine viruses are different from those that were selected for the Northern Hemisphere for the 2011-2012 influenza vaccine.

The WHO also recommended for those countries considering including two influenza B viruses in their vaccine, that a B/Brisbane/60/2008-like virus (from the B/Victoria lineage of viruses) be used.

During February 2012 the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee (VRBPAC)External Web Site Icon will meet to discuss the WHO recommendation. They will make a final decision for the composition of influenza vaccine that will be used in the United States for the 2012-2013 season.

The WHO Vaccine Composition MeetingExternal Web Site Icon was held February 21-23, 2012 at the WHO headquarters in Geneva, Switzerland. A detailed report Adobe PDF file [408 KB, 16 pages]External Web Site Icon is available on the WHO web site.

How are the viruses selected to make flu vaccine?

The influenza (flu) viruses selected for inclusion in the seasonal flu vaccines are updated each year based on information about which influenza viruses are being found, how they are spreading, and how well the previous season’s vaccine viruses might protect against any that are being newly identified. Currently, over 100 national influenza centers in over 100 countries conduct year-round surveillance for influenza viruses and disease activity. These laboratories then send influenza viruses for additional analyses to the five World Health Organization (WHO) Collaborating Centers for Reference and Research on Influenza, which are located in the following places:

  • Atlanta, Georgia, USA (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, CDC);
  • London, United Kingdom (National Institute for Medical Research);
  • Melbourne, Australia (Victoria Infectious Diseases Reference Laboratory);
  • Tokyo, Japan (National Institute for Infectious Diseases); and
  • Beijing, China (National Institute for Viral Disease Control and Prevention).

Since the early 1980s, the seasonal flu vaccine has been trivalent (a three-component vaccine) with each component selected to protect against one of the three main groups of influenza viruses circulating in humans.

Three vaccine viruses are chosen to maximize the likelihood that the influenza vaccine will protect against the viruses most likely to spread and cause illness among people during the upcoming flu season. WHO recommends specific vaccine viruses for influenza vaccine production, but then individual countries make their own decisions for licensing of vaccines in their country. In the United States, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration determines what viruses will be used in U.S.-licensed vaccines.

Who is included in the group that makes the vaccine virus selections at WHO?

The WHO vaccine virus decision meetings include WHO representatives from the WHO Collaborating Centers, Essential Regulatory Laboratories, and others from the Global Influenza Surveillance Network (GISN). After WHO makes its recommendations, the U.S. FDA Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee (VRBPAC) meets to concur with or modify WHO’s recommendation for the United States.

What flu viruses are included in the Northern Hemisphere seasonal vaccine for 2011-2012?

The Northern Hemisphere’s 2011—2012 seasonal influenza vaccine contains the following three vaccine viruses:

  • an A/California/7/2009 (H1N1)-like virus;
  • an A/Perth/16/2009 (H3N2)-like virus; and
  • a B/Brisbane/60/2008-like virus.

These are the same viruses that were selected for the Northern Hemisphere for the 2010-2011 influenza vaccine.

When and where did the WHO group meet to determine the vaccine composition for the 2011-2012 seasonal influenza vaccine for the Northern Hemisphere?

On January 10 and January 27, 2011, the WHO selection process for which viruses to include in the seasonal influenza vaccine for the Northern Hemisphere began with teleconferences discussing influenza surveillance data.

The final WHO Vaccine Composition MeetingExternal Web Site Iconwas held February 14-16, 2011 at the WHO headquarters in Geneva, Switzerland.

When and where was it decided what the vaccine composition would be for the 2011-2012 seasonal vaccine for the United States?

After WHO made its recommendations for the Northern Hemisphere, the U.S. FDA Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee (VRBPAC)External Web Site Icon met in Bethesda, Maryland on February 25, 2011 and concurred with WHO’s recommendation. So the U.S. seasonal vaccine for the 2011-2012 season includes an A/California/7/2009 (H1N1)-like virus, an A/Perth/16/2009 (H3N2)-like virus, and a B/Brisbane/60/2008-like virus.

What flu viruses are included in the Southern Hemisphere seasonal vaccine for 2011?

On September 29, 2010, in Geneva, Switzerland, WHO recommended that the Southern Hemisphere’s seasonal influenza vaccine contain the following three vaccine viruses:

  • an A/California/7/2009 (H1N1)-like virus;
  • an A/Perth/16/2009 (H3N2)-like virus;* and
  • a B/Brisbane/60/2008-like virus.

*Note: A/Wisconsin/15/2009 and A/Victoria/210/2009 are A/Perth/16/2009-like viruses.

The WHO recommendation and summary reportExternal Web Site Icon are available on the WHO website. In addition, a frequently asked questions document Adobe PDF file [66 KB, 2 pages]External Web Site Icon on the vaccine strain selection process is also available on the WHO website.

When the influenza vaccine composition is the same for the upcoming season as it was for the previous season, do I need to get vaccinated again?

Yes. People should get vaccinated every year because even if the viruses in the vaccine are the same as the year before, immunity to influenza viruses declines over time and may be too low to provide protection after a year. More information is available about the frequency and timing of flu vaccination.

 



Email This Post Email This Post

Comments Off

February 26th, 2012 posted by Paul Rega, MD, FACEP @ 1:27 am

CDC: Raw clover sprouts and STEC O26 update

Uncategorized

http://www.cdc.gov/ecoli/2012/O26-02-12/index.html

 



Email This Post Email This Post

Comments Off

February 26th, 2012 posted by Paul Rega, MD, FACEP @ 1:26 am

H5N1 death rate : What’s the real rate? 2 views……

Uncategorized

http://www.cidrap.umn.edu/cidrap/content/influenza/avianflu/news/feb2412seroprev.html

Debate on H5N1 death rate and missed cases continues

Lisa Schnirring * Staff Writer

Feb 24, 2012 (CIDRAP News) – Two leading voices on the potential threat of lab-modified H5N1 viruses laid out their arguments about the human H5N1 fatality rate and undetected cases today and yesterday, with one group claiming “millions” likely have been infected and the other group saying current World Health Organization (WHO) fatality-rate estimates are about right.

Here are the abstracts: 

http://www.sciencemag.org/content/early/2012/02/22/science.1218888.abstract

ScienceDOI: 10.1126/science.1218888

Seroevidence for H5N1 Influenza Infections in Humans: Meta-Analysis

  1. Taia T. Wang1,
  2. Michael K. Parides2,
  3. Peter Palese

“The prevalence of avian H5N1 influenza A infections in humans has not been definitively determined. Cases of H5N1 infection in humans confirmed by the World Health Organization (WHO) are fewer than 600 in number, with an overall case fatality rate of >50%. We hypothesize that the stringent criteria for confirmation of a human case of H5N1 by WHO does not account for a majority of infections, but rather, the select few hospitalized cases that are more likely to be severe and result in poor clinical outcome. Meta-analysis shows that 1 to 2% of more than 12,500 study participants from 20 studies had seroevidence for prior H5N1 infection. ”

 

http://mbio.asm.org/content/3/2/e00045-12.full

doi: 10.1128/​mBio.00045-12 24 February 2012 mBio vol. 3 no. 2 e00045-12

Osterholm MT, Kelley NS. 2012. Mammalian-transmissible H5N1 influenza: facts and perspective. mBio 3(2):e00045-12. doi:10.1128/mBio.00045-12.

Mammalian-Transmissible H5N1 Influenza: Facts and Perspective

  1. Michael T. Osterholma,b and
  2. Nicholas S. Kelleya

Two recently submitted (but as yet unpublished) studies describe success in creating mutant isolates of H5N1 influenza A virus that can be transmitted via the respiratory route between ferrets; concern has been raised regarding human-to-human transmissibility of these or similar laboratory-generated influenza viruses. Furthermore, the potential release of methods used in these studies has engendered a great deal of controversy around publishing potential dual-use data and also has served as a catalyst for debates around the true case-fatality rate of H5N1 influenza and the capability of influenza vaccines and antivirals to impact any future unintentional or intentional release of H5N1 virus. In this report, we review available seroepidemiology data for H5N1 infection and discuss how case-finding strategies may influence the overall case-fatality rate reported by the WHO. We also provide information supporting the position that if an H5N1 influenza pandemic occurred, available medical countermeasures would have limited impact on the associated morbidity and mortality.



Email This Post Email This Post

Comments Off



Get Macromedia Flash Player

Flash Player Uninstaller - uninstall if you have trouble updating or installing the new flash player, then try to install the flash player again
Syndicate this site using RSS RSS Feed
FindBlogs.com

Conditions and Diseases Blog Directory

ProjectDisaster at Blogged