Apr 2, 2013 (CIDRAP News) – “The world registered fewer human
infections with H5N1 avian influenza in 2012, but the fatality rate was a little
higher than in previous years, the World Health Organization (WHO) noted in a
recent review of the year’s data.
Thirty-two human H5N1 cases were confirmed last year, as compared
with 62 in 2011, 48 in 2010, and 73 in 2009, the WHO reported. There were 11
cases in Egypt in 2012, 9 in Indonesia, 4 in Vietnam, 3 in Cambodia, 3 in
Bangladesh, and 2 in China. The virus is considered endemic in poultry in five
of those six countries, and a recent study suggested it is endemic in the sixth,
Cambodia, as well…………..”
PHNOM PENH: “A 35-year-old man has become Cambodia’s eighth bird flu fatality this year, prompting concern about the spread of the virus in the country……………..
The latest victim…………..died on Monday night from the H5N1 virus in a Phnom Penh hospital……………
He said the man had eaten two ducks which had previously died before he became sick earlier this month………….Eight of the nine people died, along with thousands of birds in the villages where the victims lived………”
Feb 18, 2013 (CIDRAP News) – “A 36-year-old Egyptian woman from Beheira governorate recently died from an H5N1 avian influenza infection, pushing the world’s number of infections reported so far this year to 10, according to an update on the disease from the World Health Organization (WHO)………….”
Notification of two human cases of H5N1 in Guizhou
“The Centre for Health Protection (CHP) of the Department of Health received notification from the Ministry of Health (MoH) today (February 10) concerning two confirmed human cases of influenza A (H5N1) in Guizhou.
A CHP spokesman said the patients were a 21-year-old woman and a 31-year-old man living in Guizhou. They are now in critical condition. Both patients did not report obvious exposure history to poultry before the onset of symptoms. There is no epidemiological link between these two cases.
Laboratory tests on the patients’ specimens by the Mainland health authorities yielded a positive result for H5N1…….”
Fourth and fifth new human cases of avian influenza H5N1 in Cambodia in 2013
Joint news release of the Ministry of Health of the Kingdom of Cambodia and World Health Organization
PHNOM PENH, 29 January 2013 -The Ministry of Health (MoH) of the Kingdom of Cambodia wishes to advise members of the public that two new more cases of avian influenza has been confirmed positive for the H5N1 virus.
The fourth case is a 17-month-old girl from Prey Nheat village, Prey Nheat commune, Kong Pisey district in Kampong Speu province has been diagnosed with H5N1 influenza on 26th January 2013 by Institut Pasteur du Cambodge. She developed symptoms on 13th January 2013 with fever, cough, runny nose, and vomiting. She was initially treated by local private practitioners. Her condition worsened and she was admitted to Kantha Bopha Hospital on 17th January with fever, cough, somnolence, and dyspnoea. Unfortunately, despite intensive medical care, she died on 28th January. There is evidence of recent deaths among poultry in the village and the girl had history of coming into contact with poultry prior to becoming sick.
In the fifth case, a 9-year-old girl from Thmei village, Thmei commune, Toeuk Chhou district, Kampot province has been diagnosed with H5N1 influenza on 28th January 2013 by Institut Pasteur du Cambodge. She became sick on 19th January, 2013 suffering with fever and cough. She was initially treated by local private practitioners. Her condition worsened and she was admitted to Kantha Bopha Hospital with fever cough, somnolence and dyspnoea on 27th January. Despite intensive medical care, the patient died on 28th January. There is evidence of recent deaths among poultry in the village. This girl is the twenty-six person in Cambodia to become infected with H5N1 virus, and the fifth person this year and the twenty-three person to die from complications of the disease. Of all the twenty six cases, 17 were children under 14, and seventeen of the twenty six confirmed cases occurred in females.
“Avian influenza H5N1 is still a threat to the health of Cambodians. This is the fourth and the fifth cases of H5N1 infection in human in early this year, and children still seem to be most vulnerable. I urge parents and guardians to keep children away from sick or dead poultry, discourage them from playing in areas where poultry stay and wash their hands often. If they have fast or difficulty breathing, they should be brought to medical attention at the nearest health facilities and attending physicians be made aware of any exposure to sick or dead poultry.” said HE Mam Bunheng, Minister of Health.
The Ministry of Health’s Rapid Response Teams (RRT) have gone to the hospitals and the field to identify the patient’s close contacts, any epidemiological linkage among the three cases and initiate preventive treatment as required. In addition, public health education campaigns are being conducted in the villages to inform families on how to protect themselves from contracting avian influenza. The government’s message is – wash hands often; keep children away from poultry; keep poultry away from living areas; do not eat sick poultry; and all poultry eaten should be well cooked.
H5N1 influenza is a flu that normally spreads between sick poultry, but it can sometimes spread from poultry to humans. Human H5N1 Avian Influenza is a very serious disease that requires hospitalization. Although the virus currently does not easily spread among humans, if the virus changes it could easily be spread like seasonal influenza. Hence, early recognition of cases is important.
Globally since 2003, there have been 615 laboratory confirmed cases of avian influenza with 364 related deaths.
The Ministry of Health will continue to keep the public informed of developments via the MoH website www.cdcmoh.gov.kh where relevant health education materials can also be downloaded.
For more information on human influenza please call the MoH Influenza Hotline numbers: 115 (free call); 012 488 981 or 089 669 567
Ministry of Health
Dr Sok Touch: Tel +855 12 856 848
Dr Ly Sovann: Tel +855 12 825 424
World Health Organization
Dr Pieter JM van Maaren: Tel +855 23 216 610
Dr Reiko Tsuyuoka: Tel +855 23 216 610
Younan M, Poh MK, Elassal E, Davis T, Rivailler P, Balish AL, et al. Microevolution of highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N1) viruses isolated from humans, Egypt, 2007–2011. Emerg Infect Dis [Internet]. 2013 Jan [date cited]. http://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1901.121080
We analyzed highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N1) viruses isolated from humans infected in Egypt during 2007–2011. All analyzed viruses evolved from the lineage of subtype H5N1 viruses introduced into Egypt in 2006; we found minimal evidence of reassortment and no exotic introductions. The hemagglutinin genes of the viruses from 2011 formed a monophyletic group within clade 2.2.1 that also included human viruses from 2009 and 2010 and contemporary viruses from poultry; this finding is consistent with zoonotic transmission. Although molecular markers suggestive of decreased susceptibility to antiviral drugs were detected sporadically in the neuraminidase and matrix 2 proteins, functional neuraminidase inhibition assays did not identify resistant viruses. No other mutations suggesting a change in the threat to public health were detected in the viral proteomes. However, a comparison of representative subtype H5N1 viruses from 2011 with older subtype H5N1 viruses from Egypt revealed substantial antigenic drift.
CIDRAP News: “……Six countries reported a total of 98 domestic poultry outbreaks and 5 wild bird cases or outbreaks from April through June of this year, which was far below the 508 outbreaks reported in the second quarter of 2011….”
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